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Sunday, 25 May 2014

SOLAR HOME SYSTEM IN KUBU VILLAGE, KARANGASEM BALI

SOLAR HOME SYSTEM IN KUBU VILLAGE, KARANGASEM BALI


I. INTRODUCTION

        Energy supply in the future is a problem that attracts attention of all nations, because human welfare in modern life is closely related to the amount and quality of energy used. The global energy consumption is likely to grow faster than the population growth. The fuel consumption was growing from 6630 million tons of oil equivalents (Mtoe) in 1980 to almost double reaching 11,163 Mtoe in 2009. This projected consumption will increase 1.5% per year until 2030 and will reach 16,900 Mtoe and the main drivers of this growth are developing countries in Asia.
        The energy consumption is mainly based on fossil fuels which account for 88.1% whereby with crude oil consisting of 34.8%, coal 29.2% and natural gas 24.1%. However the share of nuclear energy and hydroelectricity are very small with only 5.5% and 6.4% respectively. At current production rates, global proven reserves for crude oil and natural gas are estimated to last for 41.8 and 60.3 years respectively. Furthermore, the fossil fuels will significantly contribute to the emission of greenhouse gases (GHG) from the combustion and raising the climate change issue. Thus, the new and renewable energies will become one of the main energy sources for the world. Currently, renewable energy contributes only 11% of the total global energy used.


II.  SOLAR CELL AND GLOBAL POLICIES

Why solar energy we choose as a renewable energy, because Solar energy is the most promising backup energy as it has many advantages over other resources. Solar energy is a naturally available and clean energy source derived from the sun that can be exploited directly to generate electricity. No release of pollutant, low maintenance and high reliability, with life span expectation of 20–30 years made solar power a favorable source of energy to be used in the future. Policies already released to support  reducing emission in the world. A variety of policies like feed-in-tariff (FIT), portfolio standard (RPS), tax credits, pricing laws, production incentives, quota requirements, trading systems etc. have been developed and implemented to promote the use of renewable energy (RE) .These strategies have main objective such as reducing the environmental impacts of the energy sector, reducing reliance on fossil fuels and encouraging new industrial development. Yet the renewable portfolio standard (RPS) and the feed-in tariff (FIT) are the most popular. Though there exist a lot of debates surround their effectiveness, expecting a choice that has to be made between them. For this, it could be decided by the countries that which Renewable Energy policy can be applicable in their own particular circumstances and objectives. According to Ekins “No optimal model has emerged, and probably none will do so in the contexts that is shaped by different histories and cultures”.



III. RURAL AREA IN EAST BALI ISLAND

Rural area is defined as a region, which is not urbanized. One of the main characteristics of rural area is its low population density is one of the common highlights of rural areas. Normally high portions of the lands in rural areas are devoted to agricul- ture. On the other hand, there are vast arid regions around the world that are also considered as rural areas. Therefore, there is no unique definition of the rural area that can be applied to all regions in the world and it can be variable from each country to another. However, the most critical aspect in the rural area rather than low population density is less access to energy sources, lack of education, health, and welfares. Increasing access to affordable and reliable energy services is an approach to reduce the energy poverty in these regions. For this case we consider the rural are as describe below

Location : Ban Village, Kubutambahan District, Karangasem Regency
Koordinate :
-       Latitude      :  - 8.276387
-       Longitude   : 115.484748

Map of Bali Island
We have several reasons why we choose solar sell energy system in this area :
  •   Rural area
  • Water is quite hard ( water resources in this area small, not enough to use micro hydro
  • Location in behind Mountain (Mountain Agung) which is quite hard to install wind turbine because the velocity average in this area is low.



An alternative we can applied in this area is Solar Home System, because the distance between one house to the other house is quite far. They replace kerosene lamps and candles traditionally used for lighting. Typically, a rural family will spend between $5-$10 per month on energy and lighting expenses. Furthermore, fumes produced from traditional lighting methods are toxic and lead to chronic lung problems, especially when children are exposed. Generally, a family will use about 3 liters of kerosene per month. Using these dimmer sources of light for studying or handicraft production can strain the eyes and cause long-term vision problems. Having a solar system will allow children to study and small businesses to continue production later into the night. This increases the population’s ability to be self-sufficient, raises their incomes, and allows them to begin to lift themselves out of poverty.



IV. SOLAR  HOME  SYSTEM TECHNOLOGY

        A solar-home-system uses a photovoltaic (solar-electric) module to provide power for lights and small appliances. The system also needs a rechargeable battery, so that power is still available at night and on cloudy days. Solar-home-systems bring huge benefits to homes in developing countries which aren’t connected to the mains electricity grid. They replace smoky, unsafe kerosene lamps with brighter light, allowing work, study and social activities after dark. They also power radios and cell phone chargers, enabling families to be in contact with the wider world. The smallest systems are solar lanterns, which can be moved around the home or carried outdoors.
      Solar-home-systems and solar lanterns already provide power to millions of homes in Asia, Africa and Latin America. Similar systems are also used in off-grid schools and health centers. How a solar-home-system works  Photovoltaic (PV) modules use semiconductor materials to generate d.c. electricity from sunlight. A large area is needed to collect as much sunlight as possible, so the semiconductor is either made into thin, flat, crystalline cells, or deposited as a very thin continuous layer onto a support material. The semiconductor must be sealed into a weatherproof casing, with suitable electrical connectors.

       PV modules are specified by their ‘watt-peak’ (Wp) rating, which is the power generated under standard conditions, equivalent to bright sun in the tropics (they still work at lower light levels though). Most solar-home-systems use modules between about 10 Wp and 100 Wp rating. The rechargeable batteries store spare electricity on sunny days, so that it is available at night and on cloudy days. They also provide a stable voltage (usually 12 V) for the devices which use the electricity. Standard lead-acid car batteries can be used, but they don’t last long if they are heavily discharged, so specially-made solar versions are strongly recommended. Other types of rechargeable battery like nickel-cadmium and nickel-metal-hydride are increasingly used, particularly in small systems like solar lanterns. They are more expensive, but easier to make small and portable, and more tolerant of being heavily discharged. All equipment run directly from the PV supply must be designed for 12 V d.c. operation. Efficient lights and appliances make best use of the limited supply of electricity.
        Efficient d.c. fluorescent lights are available down to about 3 or 4 W power rating, in both tube and compact forms. LED lights are even more efficient, and are now sufficiently cheap and reliable to be used as well. In most systems, an electronic charge-controller is used to protect the battery from being overcharged (when it is very sunny) or over-discharged (when people try to get too much electricity from the system). The charge controller usually has lights or a meter to indicate the state-of-charge of the battery.

How To Use M42 (Screw Mount) Lenses in Digital Camera

M42 screw mount was first used in ZeissContax S of 1949; this East German branch of Zeiss.  M42 × 1 mm standard mount cameras first became well known in Japan under the Praktica brand, and thus the M42 mount is known as the Praktica thread mount there. Since there were no proprietary elements to the M42 mount, many other manufacturers used it; this has led to it being called theUniversal thread mount or Universal screw mount by many.

Example of Screw mount


Very easy to use M42 screw mount in digital cameras (interchange lens type). Just use adapter, you can buy thoses adapters in your local store or online shop. Depend on camera you use. Here some i write the list of adapter which is available in store for you digital camera. 


  1. M42 to Canon EOS  => available with or without Chip AF confirm. AF confirm will allow you to activated the "Beep" sound, you still use your hand to turn down the focusing ring (no motor drive in manual lens) 
    M42 to EOS non-Chip




      M42 to Eos with Chip


  2. M42 to Nikon => will not be able to allow you capture until infinity focus, in many case only 2m. It happened because flanger register of nikon is longer than m42 screw mount. To make the camera can focus infinity you would need an adapter with optic correction which is reduce the image quality.
  3. M42 to Micro 4/3 => micro 4/3 (crop factor 2) very easy to adapt this kind of lens just buy adapter M42 to M4/3.
  4. M42 to Sony Alpha Mount => same as canon, sony alpha which is "A" mount adapt M42 mount is not a big deal.
    M42 to M4/3

My Backpacker Journey in Bandung City Jawa Barat

Bandung (IndonesianKota Bandung) is the capital of West Java province in Indonesia, the country's third largest city by population, and second largest metropolitan area in Indonesia with a population of 2.4 million in 2010. Bandung has cooler temperatures year-round than most other Indonesian cities. The city lies on a river basin surrounded by volcanic mountains. This topography provides a good natural defense system, which was the primary reason for the Dutch East Indies government's plan to move the colony capital from Batavia to Bandung.


Bandung is one of the best choice if you traveling to Indonesia, has a good landscape especially for Photographer. 
Me and my friend traveling Bandung city using motorbike

Climate in bandung city


Some place you can visit in Bandung are :
  1. Dago Street , a lot of butique and merchandise shop in here. 
  2. Lembang , Tea field which has a cold temperature best place if you want to enjoy and relax
  3. Kebun Bunga Cihedeng (Cihideng Flower Garden) , Photographer who like to photograph Flower this place highly recommended for visiting if you have time
  4. Cimahi Waterfall , best place for capture Slow speed photograph , you just need to Pay Rp 10.000 ($1) you can enjoy the nature and better place for meditation.
  5. Ciwidey , (Tea Field Ciwidey) very large field tea in this area, is quite far from Bandung city, in the south of Bandung city.
  6. Gedung Sate (in the past which is built by Duct Colonial) is a historical place , if you like historical traveling, this place is highly recommended. 



Here some option If you visited Bandung, i put some track and how to reach those places.


Option 1. From Husein Perdana Kusuma Airport

  1. Take taxi in from of exit door airport
  2. Ask the taxi officer and tell them your destination, they will give you exact amount of payment
  3. Choose Dago for first destination, is more easy to go anywhere around Bandung city from Dago.
  4. After arrived in Dago Street there are a lot of store along the road, if you want to try Bandung food visit kartika sari.
  5. If you want to go to Lembang, From Simpang Dago street take Angkot(Angkot is public transportation) take angkot which has destination Sukajadi Lembang.
  6. After Arrived in front of therminal Ledeng, stop there and take other angkot which has destination Ledeng Lembang
  7. After you arrived in Lembang you can say "Kiri" (Pull over) and you arrived in Lembang.


Option 2. From Cihahem Bus Station (If You came From Central Java)

  1. From Cicahem Bus Station, Take angkot which has destination  Angkot Cicahem-Ciriyom
  2. After arrived in Simpang Dago pull over say "Kiri Pak
  3. After arrived in Dago Street there are a lot of store along the road, if you want to try Bandung food visit kartika sari.
  4. In simpang Dago there are MC.Donald if you want buy some soft drink.
  5. If you want to go to Lembang, From Simpang Dago street take Angkot(Angkot is public transportation) take angkot which has destination Sukajadi Lembang.
  6. After Arrived in front of therminal Ledeng, stop there and take other angkot which has destination Ledeng Lembang
  7. After you arrived in Lembang you can say "Kiri" (Pull over) and you arrived in Lembang.
  8. in A long way go to Lembang you can visit also Teropong Bosca (Bosca Observatorium )

There are a lot of tourism object which is not famous and free you can visited, such ass Duct Cave, Japanese Cave,  Dago Waterfall etc.

If you need further information do not hesitate to let me know. Many thx




Super-Multi-Coated Takumar 50mm f1.4 M42 Lens Review

Let me introduce you the superberb old lens from Japan, here S-M-C Takumar.

Takumar is the famous optical factory from japan well known as "Asahi Opti Co." which produced a lot of high quality lenses. S-M-C Takumar is one of those lenses. Great built in quality, great optical design. S-M-C (Super Multicoated) Takumar in my opinion one of the best 50mm lenses. Some people said Takumar 50mm f1.4 is planar killer (Carl Zeiss Planar 50mm f1.4). Supermulticoated (S-M-C in front barrel of lens) is the rare one. Luckily i got one. Here some sample from this lens

Front View of Takumar


Side View

Back View


Image test Result (i used Sony NEX 5N)
S-M-C Takumar 50mm f1.4

Nikon FM2 35mm Analog Camera

The Nikon FM2 is an advanced semi-professional, interchangeable lens, 35 mm film, single-lens reflex (SLR) camera. It was manufactured by Nippon Kogaku K. K. (today Nikon Corporation) in Japan from 1982 to 2001. The original camera was released with some incremental improvements (such as a higher flash-sync speed) in 1984 and this later version is commonly referred to as the FM2n (for 'new') although both versions are labelled as the FM2 on the camera body. The FM2 originally used an advanced Nikon-design, metal-bladed, bearing-mounted, vertical-travel focal plane shutter with a (then unheard-of) speed range of 1 to 1/4000th second plus Bulb, plus a fast flash X-sync of 1/200th second. It had dimensions of 90 mm (height), 142 mm (width), 60 mm (depth) and a weight of 540 g.


I have this camera and i still use it. Very comfortable film camera with great metering. I got this camera in Second hand market with cheap price $90 which is on ebay the price nearly $150.


Tuesday, 15 April 2014

Fixed Bed Combustion Of Coal Fired Power Plant


Fixed bed combustion is type of combustion system which is :
  • A continuous fuel feed system is  referred to as a stoker
  • Air flows up through the grate and through the bed of ash, char and fuel.
  • The tradition campfire is an example of fixed-bed combustion,
  • Widely use for coal, biomass and waste fuel 

(If you Want presentation file you can download in here "DOWNLOAD")



Monday, 24 March 2014

Vivitar 28mm f2.8 Close focus Nikon Mount Review

Might be in the first of booming era , which is people using DSLR with manual lenses Vivitar lens is not quite famous yet. Vivitar is one  name of brand which is produced a lot of lenses with outstanding result.  In my opinion vivitar lenses has a good saturation color, sharp in wide open and you can get it in cheap price due to the ability of this lens produced a good image. Mine is 28mm f2.8 Close Focus nikon mount has a minimum focusing distance (MFD) 19 close enough to capture macro photography.

i picked up this picture from google

Here the data of the lens
  • manufacturer: Komine
  • filter: 49mm
  • markings: green meter scale
  • full focus range: 3/4 turn
  • aperture blades: 6
  • aperture range: f/2.8-f/16
  • maximum magnification: 1:5 (without MET)
  • maximum magnification with MET : 1:2
  • weight: 200g
  • diameter / length: 62mm / 36-43mm

First i bought this lens i doubt its ability to produce a good picture, but when i tried i would like to say "If you get cheap price, grab it with confidence, you wouldn't go wrong with this lens". Small lens, good ability for landscape, BW, even macro.

Here the example of pictures from this lens using Nikon D90

Landscape
 Vivitar 28mm f2.8 close focus + D90 @f8

 Vivitar 28mm f2.8 close focus + D90 @f8

 Vivitar 28mm f2.8 close focus + D90 @f8


Macro
 Vivitar 28mm f2.8 close focus + D90 @f11 + MET

 Vivitar 28mm f2.8 close focus + D90 @f11 + MET

 Vivitar 28mm f2.8 close focus + D90 @f16 + MET

Those are the example pictures i taken with vivitar lens and my nikon camera, the choice is yours. But i highly recommended this lens due to its ability. :D 

 

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